Tuesday, November 20, 2012
How to improve recovery from exercise
One of the most important aspects of training is the recovery. Incomplete recovery will result in tissue breakdown and optimal benefits from the exercise are not realized.
A lot of research has been published on this topic. What you will find here is a synthesis of the most relevant information.
It is important to ingest carbohydrates, protein and amino acids after both aerobic, endurance exercise and anaerobic, resistance exercise to get maximum benefits from training.
As a general rule, 1g of carbohydrate per kg of body weight and 0.5g of protein per kg of body weight should be ingested within 30 minutes after exercise as well as a high carbohydrate meal within 2 hours following exercise (Kreider RB, et al. 2010).
The exercise recovery process can possibly be improved even further by using supplements.
Exercise results in depletion of muscle glycogen. When protein is added to the carbohydrates in the recovery period, the insulin response is significantly greater than when carbohydrates are used by itself (Zawadski KM, et al. 1992). This is the case even if a high glycemic index carbohydrate source such as glucose or maltodextrine is used.
Insulin acts as an anabolic hormone and stimulates the uptake of both carbohydrates and amino acids into the tissue.
Ingestion of hydrolyzed whey protein and maltodextrine after exercise, have shown to increase the synthesis and repair of muscle protein not only after resistance exercise, but also after endurance exercise (Howarth KR, et al. 2009).
If you want to improve recovery even further, add amino acids to the carbohydrates.
Carbohydrates and essential amino acids have been documented to maximize the anabolic response to resistance exercise and suppress the exercise induced cortisol response (Bird SP, et al. 2006). Cortisol is a stress hormone.
Responsible for that is most likely leucine, which is one of the branched chained amino acids.
A study compared the efficiency of two drinks consumed after 45 minutes of resistance exercise. Both drinks consisted of carbohydrates in the form of 50% glucose, 50% maltodextrine and whey protein and one of the drinks had added leucine. It was documented that the drink with added leucine stimulated muscle protein synthesis more efficiently compared to the drink without it (Koopman R, et al. 2005).
These are the ingredients used by the participants per hour per kg body weight: 0.3g of carbohydrates, 0.2g of hydrolyzed whey protein and 0.1g of leucine. For a 60 kg (172 pounds) individual that would amount to 18g of carbohydrates, 12g of protein and 6g of leucine per hour which is what approximately can be emptied from the stomach per hour.
As a summary: For the fastest recovery including increased protein synthesis after both endurance and resistance exercise, use higher glycemic index carbohydrates with either essential amino acids or branched chain amino acids.
Just remember you don’t want to eat or drink high glycemic index foods or beverages when you don’t exercise, that will make you more insulin resistant. To stay as insulin sensitive as possible allowing maximum glucose to be transferred into the cells for energy, you need to eat low glycemic index meals regularly.
To learn about the benefits of low glycemic index, high nutrient foods read either one of the books, “Effective Nutrition for Effective Healing” or “The Food Connection.”
To read the original abstract, click on the references below.
Bird SP, Tarpenning KM, Marino FE. Independent and combined effects of liquid carbohydrate/essential amino acid ingestion on hormonal and muscular adaptations following resistance training in untrained men. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2006 May;97(2):225-38. Epub 2006 Mar 24.
Howarth KR, Moreau NA, Phillips SM, Gibala MJ. Coingestion of protein with carbohydrate during recovery from endurance exercise stimulates skeletal muscle protein synthesis in humans. J Appl Physiol. 2009 Apr;106(4):1394-402. Epub 2008 Nov 26.
Koopman R, Wagenmakers AJ, Manders RJ, Zorenc AH, Senden JM, Gorselink M, Keizer HA, van Loon LJ. Combined ingestion of protein and free leucine with carbohydrate increases postexercise muscle protein synthesis in vivo in male subjects. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2005 Apr;288(4):E645-53. Epub 2004 Nov 23.
Kreider RB, Wilborn CD, Taylor L, Campbell B, Almada AL, Collins R, Cooke M, Earnest CP, Greenwood M, Kalman DS, Kerksick CM, Kleiner SM, Leutholtz B, Lopez H, Lowery LM, Mendel R, Smith A, Spano M, Wildman R, Willoughby DS, Ziegenfuss TN, Antonio J. ISSN exercise & sport nutrition review: research & recommendations. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2010 Feb 2;7:7.
Zawadzki KM, Yaspelkis BB 3rd, Ivy JL. Carbohydrate-protein complex increases the rate of muscle glycogen storage after exercise. J Appl Physiol. 1992 May;72(5):1854-9.
Published with permission by Didrik Sopler, Ph.D., L.Ac : – www.TissueRecovery.com Dr. Marsh has worked with and referrers patients to Dr. Sopler for co-management for years . . . He is quite simply San Diego's top functional medicine consultant.